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Рак на Простатата – Обща част

1. Richie JP, Catalona WJ, Ahmann FR, hudson MA, Scardino PT, Flanigan RC, deKernion JB, Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL. Effect of patient age on early detection of prostate cancer with serum prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination. Urology 1993:42(4):365-74. (level of evidence: 2a)

2. Catalona WJ, Richie JP, Ahmann FR, hudson MA, Scardino PT, Flanigan RC, deKernion JB, Ratliff TL,

Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL, et al. Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men. J Urol 1994;151(5):1283-90.

3. Lee F, Torp-Pedersen ST, Siders DB, Littrup PJ, McLeary RD. Transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis

and staging of prostate cancer. Radiology 1989;170(3 Pt 1):609-15.

4. Ellis WJ, Chetner MP, Preston SD, Brawer MK. Diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma: the yield of serum prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography. J Urol. 1994 Nov;152(5 Pt 1):1520-5.

Лечение на рака на простатата (първа част)

1. Chodak GW, Thisted RA, Gerber GS, Johansson JE, Adolfsson J, Jones GW, Chisholm GD, Moskovitz B, Livne PM, Warner J. Results of conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 1994;330(4):242-8.

2. Fallon B, Williams RD. Current options in the management of clinical stage C prostatic carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 1990;17(4):853-66.

3. Boccon-Gibod L, Bertaccini A, Bono AV, Dev Sarmah B, höltl W, Mottet N, Tunn U, Zamboglou

N. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer: a European Consensus. Int J Clin Pract 2003;57(3):187-94.

Рак на пикочния мехур – обща част

1. Kurth KH: Natural history and progression of untreated and treated superficial bladder cancer; Oxford, Isis Medicl Media, 1997; 42-56.

2. Stefan Tritschler , Sonja Scharf , Alexander Karl , Derya Tilki ,Ruth Knuechel , Arndt Hartmann , Christian G. Stief , Dirk Zaak ;Validation of the Diagnostic Value of NMP22W BladderChekW: Test as a Marker for Bladder Cancer by Photodynamic Diagnosis; Eur Urol. 2007; 51: 403–408.

3. Stefan Tritschler , Sonja Scharf , Alexander Karl , Derya Tilki ,

Ruth Knuechel , Arndt Hartmann , Christian G. Stief , Dirk Zaak ;Validation of the Diagnostic Value of NMP22W BladderChekW: Test as a Marker for Bladder Cancer by Photodynamic Diagnosis; Eur Urol. 2007; 51: 403–408.

4. Althausen AF, Prout GR, Daly JJ. Non-invasive papillary carcinoma of the bladder associated with carcinoma in situ. J Urol 1976;116:575—80.

5. Jichlinski P, Guillou L, Karlsen SJ, Malmstrom PU, Jocham D, Brennhovd B, Johansson E, Gartner T, Lange N, van den Bergh H, Leisinger HJ. Hexyl aminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy: a new diagnostic tool for photodiagnosis of superficial bladder cancer –a multicenter study. J Urol 2003;170(1):226-9.

6. Hungerhuber E, Stepp H, Kriegmair M, Stief Ch, Hofstetter A, Hartmann A, Knuechel R, Karl A,

Tritschler S, Zaak D. Seven years ́ experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid in detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology 2007;69(2):260-4.


1. Reyes BL, Trerotola SO, Venbrux AC, et al. Percutaneous embolotheraphy of adolescent varicocele: Results and long-term follow-up. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1994;5:131.

2. McClure RD, Khoo, D, Jarvi K, Hricak H. Subclinical varicocele: The effectiveness of varicocelectomy. Journal of Urology 1991;145:789-791.

3. Nagao RR, Plymate SR, Berger RE, Perin EB, Paulsen CA. Comparison of gonadal function between fertile and infertile men with varicoceles. Fertility and Sterility 1986;46:930-933.

4. Hlansky-Goldberg RD, VanArsdalen KN, Rutter, CM, Soulen MC, Haskal ZJ, Baum RA, Redd DC, Cope C, Pentecost MJ. Percutaneous varicocele embolization versus surgical ligation for the treatment of infertility: changes in seminal parameters and pregnancy outcomes. JVIR 1997;8:759-767.

С няколко думи за Фимозата

Circumcision Policy Statement, PEDIATRICS Vol. 103 No. 3 March 1999, pp. 686-693;103/3/686

2. Oster J Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys. Arch Dis Child. 1968; 43:200-203

3. Fergusson DM, Lawton JW, Shannon FT Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: an 8-year longitudinal study.Pediatrics 1988; 81:537-541

4. Stenram A, Malmfors G, Okmian L Circumcision for phimosis: indications and results. Acta Paediatr Scand 1986; 75:321-323

Уретероскопията при лечението на камъни в уретера

1. Harmon WJ, Sershon PD, Blute ML. Ureteroscopy: current practice and long term complications. J Urol 1997; 157: 28-32.

2. Scarpa RM, De Lisa A, Porru D. Holmium YAG laser ureterolithotripsy. Eur Urol 1999;35:233-8.

3. Grasso M, Conlin M. Bagley D. Retrograde ureteropyeloscopic treatment of 2 cm or greater upper urinary tract and minor staghorn calculi. J Urol 1998; 160:346-51

4. Eisenberger F, Bub P, Schmidt a. The fate of residual fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J Endourol 1992;6:217-8.

5. Segura JW, Preminger gM, assimos dg, dretler SP, khan rI, Lingeman JE, Macaluso Jn Jr. Ureteral Stones clinical guidelines Panel summary report on the management of ureteral calculi. The american urological association. J urol 1997; 158(5):1915-21.

6. Candau C, Saussine C, Lang H, roy C, Faure F, Jacqmin D. natural history of residual renal stone fragments after ESWL. Eur urol 2000;37(1):18-22.

Лазерно разбиване на камъни в бъбреците и уретера

1.Intracorporeal lithotripsy. Instrumentation and development.
Urol Clin North Am.  1997; 24(1):13-23

2.Johnson dB and Pearle MS: complications of ureteroscopy. urol clin north am 2004:31(1):157-71.

3.Endoscopic lithotripsy and the FREDDY laser: initial experience.
J Endourol.  2006; 20(5):296-9

4.The effect of frequency doubled double pulse Nd:YAG laser fiber proximity to the target stone on transient cavitation and acoustic emission.
J Urol.  2007; 177(4):1542-5

Фотодинамична диагностика (PDD) при туморите на пикочния мехур

1. Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Raymond L, Young J. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, vol. VIII (no. 155). Lyon, France: IARC Publications; 2002.

2. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics,
CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55:74–108.

3. Kurth KH: Natural history and progression of untreated and treated superficial bladder cancer; Oxford, Isis Medicl Media, 1997; 42-56.

4. Soloway MS., Murphy W., Rao MK., Cox C.: Serial multiple-site biopsy in patients with bladder cancer. J Urol 1978, 120, 57.

5. Smith G, Elton RA, Beynon LL, et al: Prognostic significance of biopsy results of normal looking mucosa in a case of superficial bladder cancer. Br J Urol 1983, 55: 665–669.

6. Kriegmair M, Baumgartner R, Knuchel R, Stepp H, Hofstadter F, Hofstetter A. Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence.
J Urol. 1996;155(1):105-9.

7. Zaak D, Kriegmair M, Stepp H, et al: Endoscopic detection of transitional cell carcinoma with 5-aminolevulinic acid: results of 1012 fluorescence endoscopies. Urology 2001; 57: 690–694.

8. Popken G, Schultze-Seemann W, Seiler KU, Birkel M, Wetterauer U:Intravesical administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). Safety and pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA and its metabolite protoporphyrin IX. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;56 (3):241-6.

9. Denzinger S., Burger M., Walter B., Knuechel R.,Roessler W., Wieland W. and Filbeck T:Clinically Relevant Reduction in Risk of Recurrence of Superficial Bladder Cancer Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Fluorescence Diagnosis: 8-Year Results of Prospective Randomized Study. Urology 2007;69 (4), pp. 675-8.

Плазмена вапоризация на тумори на пикочния мехур

1. Plasma Vaporisation of the Prostate: Initial Clinical Results
Oliver Reich, Boris Schlenker, Christian Gratzke, Derya Tilki, Malte Riecken, Christian Stief, Michael Seitz, Alexander Bachmann.
Accepted 12 May 2009, Published online 26 May 2009, pages 693 – 698
Пълен текст на статията

2. Editorial Comment on: Plasma Vaporisation of the Prostate: Initial Clinical Results
Sascha A. Ahyai .
Received 24 January 2009, Accepted 12 May 2009, Published online 26 May 2009, pages 697 – 698
Пълен текст на статията

3. TURis plasma vaporization in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer–the first Romanian experience with a new technique.
Geavlete B, Jecu M, Mulţescu R, Georgescu D, Drăguţescu M, Geavlete P.
J Med Life. 2010 Jan-Mar;3(1):100-5.

Лазерите за лечение на Доброкачествена Простатна Хиперплазия

1. Kuntz R. Current role of lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). European Urology. 2006;49:961

2. AUA guideline on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia: Diagnosis and treatment recommendations. Baltimore, Md.: American Urological Association. Accessed March 12, 2009.

3. Kuo RL, et al. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP): A technical update. World Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2003;1:6. Accessed March 12, 2009.

4. Fitzpatrick JM, et al. Minimally invasive and endoscopic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. Accessed March 12, 2009.


Размерите на пениса по света

Penile length and circumference: A study on 3,300 young Italian males. European Urology, 39, 183–186. ProPlus. (2005, March). Doctor discovers pill for male enlargement! For Him Magazine, p. 131.

Sengezer, M. Ozturk, S., & Deveci, M. (2002) Accurate method for determining functional penile length in Turkish young men. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 48,381–385.

Son, H., Lee, H., Huh, J., Kim, S. W., & Paick, J. (2003). Studies on self-esteem of penile size in young Korean military men. Asian Journal of Andrology, 5, 185–189.

Ponchietti, R; Mondaini, N; Bonafè, M; Di Loro, F; Biscioni, S; Masieri, L (2001). „Penile length and circumference: a study on 3,300 young Italian males“.European urology 39 (2): 183–6. doi:10.1159/000052434. PMID 11223678.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum. Edwards, R. (1998). The definitive penis size surveyresults (6th ed.). Retrieved February 4, 2005

Francken, A. B., van de Wiel, H. B. M., van Driel, M. F., & Weijmar Schultz, W. C. M. (2002). What importance do women attribute to size of the penis?
European Urology, 42, 426–431.

Рак на бъбрека

Sobin LH, Gospodariwicz M, Wittekind C (eds). TNM classification of malignant tumors. UICC
International Union Against Cancer. 7th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009: pp. 255-257.

Kuroda N, Toi M, Hiroi M, et al. Review of renal oncocytoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological
aspects. Histol Histopathol 2003 Jul;18(3):935-42.

Eble JN, Sauter G, Epstein JI, et al. (eds). World Health Organization Classification of Tumours.
Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. IARC Press:
Lyon, 2004, pp. 9-87.

Hemal AK, Kumar A, Kumar R, et al. Laparoscopic versus open radical nephrectomy for large renal
tumors: a long-term prospective comparison. J Urol 2007 Mar;177(3):862-6.

Burgess NA, Koo BC, Calvert RC, et al. Randomized trial of laparoscopic v open nephrectomy.
J Endourol 2007 Jun;21:610-13.

McDermott DF, Regan MM, Clark JI, et al. Randomized phase III trial of high-dose interleukin-2 versus
subcutaneous interleukin-2 and interferon in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin
Oncol 2005 Jan;23(1):133-41.

Предимства на роботизираната хирургия в Урологията

1.Claim based on 2008 U.S. data. Data on file at Intuitive Surgical, Inc.
2.Rocco B, Matei DV, Melegari S, Ospina JC, Mazzoleni F, Errico G, Mastropasqua M, Santoro L, Detti S, de Cobelli O. Robotic vs open prostatectomy in a laparoscopically naive centre: a matched-pair analysis. BJU Int. 2009 Oct;104(7):991-5. Epub 2009 May 5.
3.Ficarra V, Novara G, Fracalanza S, D’Elia C, Secco S, Iafrate M, Cavalleri S, Artibani W. A prospective, non-randomized trial comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and retropubic radical prostatectomy in one European institution. BJU Int. 2009 Aug;104(4):534-9. Epub 2009 Mar 5.
4.Ho C, Tsakonas E, Tran K, Cimon K, Severn M, Mierzwinski-Urban M, Corcos J, Pautler S. Robot-Assisted Surgery Compared with Open Surgery and Laparoscopic Surgery: Clinical Effectiveness and Economic Analyses [Internet]. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH); 2011 (Technology report no. 137).
5.Hohwu L, Akre O, Pedersen KV, Jonsson M, Nielsen CV, Gustafsson O. Open retropubic prostatectomy versus robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: A comparison of length of sick leave. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. Apr 7 2009:1-6.
6.Menon M, Tewari A, Baize B, Guillonneau B, Vallancien G. Prospective comparison of radical retropubic prostatectomy and robot-assisted anatomic prostatectomy: the Vattikuti Urology Institute experience. Urology. 2002 Nov;60(5):864-8.
7.Miller J, Smith A, Kouba E, Wallen E, Pruthi RS. Prospective evaluation of short-term impact and recovery of health related quality of life in men undergoing robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy versus open radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2007 Sep;178(3 Pt 1):854-8; discussion 859. Epub 2007 Jul 16.
8.Carlsson S, Nilsson AE, Schumacher MC, Jonsson MN, Volz DS, Steineck G, Wiklund PN. Surgery-related complications in 1253 robot-assisted and 485 open retropubic radical prostatectomies at the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. Urology. 2010 May;75(5):1092-7.

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